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中考英語復習---動詞的分類, 情態動詞和 be 動詞專項練習含答案
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中考英語復習---動詞的分類, 情態動詞和 be  動詞專項練習含答案01
中考英語復習---動詞的分類, 情態動詞和 be  動詞專項練習含答案02
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中考英語復習---動詞的分類, 情態動詞和 be  動詞專項練習含答案04
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中考英語復習---動詞的分類, 情態動詞和 be 動詞專項練習含答案

展開

動詞

動詞的分類

一、動詞概述及分類

根據其句法功能,動詞可以分為四大類,列表如下。

1、實義動詞(行為動詞) 

及物動詞 +賓語,構成主謂賓句型

   +雙賓語,構成主謂雙賓句型

   +復合賓語,構成主位復賓句型

  不及物動詞

 2、連系動詞 be, seem, look, sound, smell, turn, get, become+表語,構成主系表句型

 

 

 

 

3、助動詞 be +doing,構成進行時

   +done,構成被動語態

  have +done,構成完成時態

   +been doing,構成完成進行時態

  肯定式dodoesdid);

 

否定式:dontdoesntdidnt 幫助行為動詞的一般現在時、一般過去時構成疑問句;

幫助行為動詞的一般現在時、一般過去時構成否定與

  will, shall, should, would +動詞原形構成將來時

 4、情態動詞 can, may, must, might, could 后接動詞原形一起構成謂語

二、實義動詞及用法

實義動詞也叫行為動詞,是四類動詞中唯一能獨立作謂語的一類動詞。根據其句法功能可以分為及物動詞和不及物動詞兩類。

1、及物動詞

    及物動詞本身意義不夠完整,需要后接賓語才能使其意思完整。

    1)動詞+賓語,構成主謂賓句型。

       例如:Could you please clean the blackboard? 請你擦黑板好嗎?

             We learn English every day. 我們每天學習英語。

2)動詞+直接賓語+to/for+間接賓語 / 動詞+間接賓語+直接賓語,構成主謂雙賓句型。有的動詞必須在后面帶表示人的間接賓語和表示物的直接賓語,即兩個賓語才能表達完整的意思。

   例如:Who teaches you English? 誰教你們英語?

         Please pass me the book.= Please pass the book to me.請把那本書遞給我。

         My mother bought me a snow globe on my birthday.

         = My mother bought a snow globe for me on my birthday.

         我過生日時我媽買給我一個雪球。

常見的帶雙賓語的動詞有:pass, give, bring, buy, get, leave, lend, make, cook, teach, tell, write, read, return, ask, show等。

3)動詞+賓語+賓語補足語,構成主謂復賓句型。有的動詞必須在賓語后再加上形容詞、副詞、名詞、不定式、-ing形式、介詞短語等做賓語補足語,構成復合賓語,句子意思才能夠表達完整。

例如:Please keep the door open. 請讓門開著。(形容詞open做賓補)

        I often see the children play in the park。我經常看見孩子們在公園里玩。(不帶to的不定式play做賓補).

        You can call me Mrs Jones.你們可以稱呼我瓊斯夫人。(名詞Mrs Jones做賓補)

動詞see, hear, watch, make, let, have, notice, find等經常以動詞不定式或-ing形式做賓補。

 2、不及物動詞

1)不及物動詞自身意思完整,無需再接賓語。

   例如:Horses run fast。馬兒跑得快。

         He sings well. 他唱得好。

2)很多不及物動詞也可以用作及物動詞,還有的不及物動詞后帶上某個介詞就成了帶賓語的及物動詞。

   例如:They are reading. 他們在朗讀。(read為不及物動詞)

         They are reading English. 他們在朗讀英語。(read為及物動詞)

         He is waiting at the bus stop.他在公交車站等。(wait為不及物動詞)

         He is waiting for me at the bus stop.他在公交車站等我。(wait for為及物動詞,帶me做賓語)

三、連系動詞

連系動詞本身有詞義,但不能單獨作謂語,必須和其后面的表語一起構成合成謂語,說明主語的性質、特征、狀態或身份。

常見的連系動詞有bebecome(變得、成為), get(變得), look(看起來),seem(似乎、好像),turn(變得),sound(聽起來),smell(聞起來),taste(嘗起來),feel(摸起來)等。除be以外的連系動詞大多數時候是實義動詞,他們用作連系動詞時多數沒有進行時態,也沒有被動語態。

例如:He is angry.他生氣了。

      He got angry at the news.聽到這個消息他生氣了。

      That sounds good.那聽起來不錯。

      Trees turn green when spring comes.春天來臨,樹葉轉綠。

      China is getting stronger and stronger.中國正變得越來越強大。

四、助動詞

助動詞本身沒有詞義或意思不完整,不能單獨作謂語。它們的主要作用是幫助構成時態、語態、疑問句或否定句等。

1、助動詞beam, is, are, was, were

   1) be+doing(現在分詞), 構成進行時

      例如:They are listening to music.他們在聽音樂。(be的現在時形式幫助構成現在進行時)

            They were walking down the street when the UFO landed.be的過去時形式幫助構成過去進行時)

   2be+done(及物動詞的過去分詞),  構成被動語態

      例如:The light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison.電燈泡是由托馬斯.愛迪生發明的。(be的過去時形式幫助構成過去時的被動語態)

            The classroom is cleaned every day.教室每天打掃。(be的現在時形式幫助構成現在時的被動語態)

            The problem will be solved next week.這個問題將在下周得到解決。(be的將來時形式幫助構成將來時的被動語態)

2have (has, had)

   1have/has/had+done(動詞的過去分詞),構成完成時態。

      例如:They have already done their homework.他們已經完成作業。(have+過去分詞構成現在完成時)

            He hasnt come yet.他還沒有回來。(has+過去分詞構成現在完成時)

            The bus had gone when I got to the bus stop.我到達車站時公交車已經離開。(had+過去分詞構成過去完成時)

   2have/has/had+been+doing(動詞的現在分詞),構成完成進行時態。

      例如:How long have you been collecting shells?你收集貝殼有多長時間了?

            He has been studying English since five years ago.他從5年前開始就一直在學習英語。

3、助動詞do/ does/ did

   助動詞do/ does/ did主要幫助構成疑問句,也可用于倒裝句、強調句或代替上文提到過的行為等。他們的否定式dont/ doesnt/ didnt幫助構成否定句。

   例如:Does he often play sports after school?他經常放學后做運動嗎?

         We dont speak Japanese.我們不說日語。

         Did they visit the Palace Museum on their last day off?他們上個休息日參觀故宮了嗎?

         She didnt watch TV yesterday evening.她昨晚上沒看電視。

4、助動詞will, shall, would, should

   助動詞will, shall主要用于構成一般將來時,其中will可用于各人稱,而shall一般只用于第一人稱。wouldshouldwillshall的過去式,可以用于構成過去將來時,但很多時候被用作情態動詞。

   例如:There will be more trees and less pollution in the future.將來會有更多的樹木,更少的污染。(幫助構成一般將來時)

         Shall we go to the park on the weekend?我們周末去公園好嗎?(一般將來時,用于提出建議)

         They said they would come the next day.他們說他們第二天來。(幫助構成過去將來時)

         Would you mind my turning down the radio?你介意我關小收音機嗎?(用于禮貌地提出建議)

         You should lie down and rest. 你應該躺下休息。(用于提供建議)

5、情態動詞can, may, must, might, could

   情態動詞具有一定的詞義,用以表達說話人的態度或情感,必須和后面的實義動詞一起構成合成謂語。(請詳見專題七  情態動詞)

 

實戰演練(2×30)           計分:  

1  Good news, boys! There is going to ______ a basketball match next week.

A. have     B. has    C. be

2  Kangkang hardly has lunch at school on Sunday, ________?

A. does he    B. has he     C. doesn’t  he

3  You had a good time during the May Day holiday, _______ you?

A. hadn’t     B. didn’t    C. haven’t

4  ---She’s back from Australia, _________ she?    ---Yes, she came back last night.

A. wasn’t     B. hasn’t    C. isn’t

5  Linda, please ______ these flowers ______ the classroom.

A. bring; in    B. take; in    C. take; to

6  ---Would you mind turning down the TV?  ---________.

A. Yes, I would mind    B. No, I didn’t     C. No, not at all

7  ---How long _______ you _______ this TV set? ---For five years.

A. did; buy    B. have; had    C. were; buying   

8  She has finished her homework, ________?

A. hasn’t she     B. does she    C. has she   

9  This week, the weather___ to change every day: One day is hot, the next is cold.

A. seems    B. looks     C. sounds   

10  I told my mother I wasn’t worried about my exam. But in fact, I _____.

A. did     B. was     C. have

11  ---When ______ your mother _______ you that blue dress , Mary?

---Sorry , I really can’t remember.

A. does; buy   B has; bought   C. did; buy

12  ---You seem to know much about the city.     ---That’s true . I ____ it three times .

A. visited    B. had visited   C. have visited

13  Hi, Mr.Smith . I didn’t know you were in New York. How long ____ here ?

A. have you come    B. were you   C. have you been  

14  Time goes by fast. We must never miss the chance to show love to our parents and make them ___how much they mean to us.

A. to know   B. knowing   C. know

15  ----It’s a secret between us .  Don’t tell anybody !   ----- Sure,_____.

     A I, do   B I, won’t  C I will 

16  ---Excuse me. You shouldn’t smoke here. Look at the sign “NO SMOKING HERE”. 

---Sorry, I ________ it.

     A. doesn’t see   B. haven’t seen   C. didn’t see  

17  There _______ a lot of changes here since 1980.

     A. have been    B. have had     C. will be   

18  The car doesn’t work. What ______ we _______?

    A. do; do     B. are; doing     C. shall; do   

19  I love to go to the seaside in summer. It _______ good to lie in the sun or swim in the water.

    A. does    B. feels   C. gets   

20  He told me he ______ care of my child while I ______ away.

    A. will take; am     B. took; was    C. would take; was 

21  Jean wants to go to China but she ______ money.

    A. doesn’t have  B. doesn’t have no    C. does have   

22  In our school library there ______ a number of books on science and the number of them _______ growing larger and larger.

    A. is; are     B. are; is      C. has; is     

23  Will you please ______ me your math book this afternoon?

    A. lending     B. lend     C. to lend    

24  ---Do you plant trees in spring?     ---Yes. Many trees _______ in our city every year.

    A. are planting    B. are planted    C. were planted

25  Now Chinese is becoming more and more popular. It ____ in many schools around the world.

    A. teaches    B. is teaching    C. is taught

26  ---Do you know the Winter Olympic Games?

    ---Sure. Once the Winter Olympics _______ the White Olympics.

    A. call      B. called    C. was called

27  Children should _____ not to break the traffic rules.

    A. tell      B. be telling     C. be told

28  ---What’s wrong with you, Sandy? You look so worried.

    ---My pet cat _______ by a car this afternoon. And it is in hospital now.

    A. is hit     B. was hit    C. hit

29  ---Mum, can I go skating now?   ---Well, you may go after your homework_______.

    A. has finished    B. will finish   C. is finished

30  We are often told ______ at people who are in trouble.

     A. not to smile    B. to smile    C. not to laugh  

 

1-5  CABBC    6-10  CBAAB    11-15 CCCCB   16-20 CACBC

21-25 ABBBC   26-30 CCBCC

 

專題七  情態動詞、系動詞

在英語中,表示主語動作或狀態的詞就叫做動詞。根據動詞的意義及在句子中的作用,可將動詞分為實義動詞(v)、系動詞(link-v)、情態動詞(modal verb)和助動詞(v. aux)四種類型。

下面我們就來看看情態動詞和系動詞的具體用法。

一、情態動詞

情態動詞本身有一定的意義,但不能獨立作謂語,要和動詞原形一起構成謂語,表說話人的語氣和態度。它沒有人稱和數的變化。常見的情態動詞有:   

1. can表示能力,有”“的意思;表示可能性,多用在否定或疑問句中;表示請求和許可。  

如:The parrot can speak three languages. 這只鸚鵡能講三種語言。       

Can I borrow the book from the library?我可以從圖書棺借這本書嗎?

Shanghai can be very cold in March. 上海三月份可能會很冷。

拓展延伸can還有過去式could 可表能,會,又可以和be able to替換,而be able to    更多時態。    如:

He could swim when he was four. =He was able to swim when he was four. 他四歲時就會游泳。    在一般疑問句中,can/could 常用來表示請求或征求對方意見,用could 比用can語氣更加委婉和客氣。類似用法的還有Will /Would you (please)等句型。  

如:Could you tell me how I can get to the post office?  你能告訴我怎樣到郵局嗎?        Would you please turn up the radio?請你把收音機開大點,好嗎?   

2.may表示許可時,相當于can,其否定回答用cant/mustnt;表推測時,常用在肯定句中,表可能   

如:-May I borrow your ruler?我可以借用您的直尺嗎?       

-No, you can't /mustn't. 不行。      

 She may be a teacher. 她可能是一名教師。

拓展延伸may可表示祝愿。如:         May you succeed! 祝你成功!

3.must表示必須;必要,以must開頭的一般疑問句其肯定回答用must,否定回答用needn'tdon't have to    must表推測時,常用在肯定句中,是一定的意思,其否定形式mustn ' t禁止的意思。  

 如:-Must I leave now?現在我必須離開嗎?       

-Noyou needn't /you don't have to. 沒有必要。       

This book must be Lucy's . Look! Her name is on the book cover. 這本書是露西的。看!封面上還有她的名字。       

You mustn't draw on the wall. 你不準在墻上畫畫。

拓展延伸must表示說話人的主觀看法,只有一般現在時;have to強調客觀要求,有時態、人稱和數的變化。如:    My mother is ill. I have to look after her now. 媽媽病了,我得去照看她。   

4.need作情態動詞時,常用在否定和疑問句中,表示需要;要的意思。   

如:Need we finish the work now?現在我們需要完成這項工作嗎?       

They needn ' t look after him. 他們不需要照顧他了。

拓展延伸need還可以用作行為動詞,可以用于各種句型。如:

 Does he need any help? 他需要幫助嗎?

The desk needs repairing. 這張桌子需要修理。

5.shall 用于第一人稱,表示說話人征求對方意見,過去式為shouldwill 用手第二人稱的疑問句中,表示說話人向對方提出請求和建議,過去式為would   

如:Shall I go shopping with you'我可以同你去購物嗎?       

I don't know what I should do next. 我不知道下一步該干什么。      

 Would you please come a little earlier?請你來早一點好嗎?   

6.情態動詞had better的用法

(1)had better 后接動詞原形,表勸告、建議,意為最好You'd better 含有強制命令的語氣,對長輩不宜使用。  

如:You'd better ask that policeman over there. 你最好問一下那邊的那個警察。  

 (2)慎用had better! 注意以下四條:  

 had better表達的是說話者強硬性的建議,告誡別人(包括自己)如何做。    如:Granny, the hospital is not very near. We'd better catch a bus. 奶奶,醫院不是很近。我們最好坐公共汽車。   

had better不用于禮貌的請求或征詢,它隱含一種警告或威脅。    如:You ' d better finish the work today and bring it tomorrow. 你最好今天就把作業完成,明天帶來。   

had better意思接近should,但它除了表示語氣強硬以外,還表示馬上要去做的事情,比should更緊迫。    如:Youd better see a doctor at once. 你最好馬上去看醫生。  

 had better不含比較的意思,該結構表示It would be good to ,而不是It would be better to…”   

二、系動詞

系動詞有實際意義,但不能單獨做謂語,必須與表語一起構成句子的謂語,說明主語的性質、狀態或身份等。 它分為完全系動詞和不完全系動詞。   

1.完全系動詞(be)可接名詞、代詞、形容詞、副詞、介詞短語、非謂語動詞短語、句子做表語。如:    I'm a student. 我是個學生。(名詞)    He is fine. 他很好。(形容詞)    It is me. 是我。(代詞)    Are you there?你在那兒嗎?(副詞)    She is at school. 她在學校讀書。(介詞短語)    He is to come soon. 他過會兒該來了。(不定式)    My job is teaching English. 我的工作是教英語。(動詞的ing形式)    My idea is that we will start now. 我的想法是我們現在就開始。(句子)   

2.不完全系動詞  (getturnfeelsmelllooksoundtaste)一般只接形容詞做表語。如:When spring comes, it gets warmer and warmer.

春天來了,天氣變得越來越暖和了。    Food may go bad soon if it is not put into a fridge.

食物如果不放進冰箱里就會很快變壞。    My brother became / turned a teacher after his graduation.

我哥哥畢業后就當上了老師。(注意becometurn的用法區別)

實戰演練(2×50)           計分:   

1. --Mary, ____ you speak Chinese?  -- Yes, but only a little.

A. will             B. can              C. could

2. --Must I do the work now?  -- No, you ____. You can do it later.

A. can't            B. mustn't           C. needn’t    

3. -- I can't stop smoking, doctor.  -- For your health, I'm afraid you ____.

A. can             B. need             C. must          

4. -- Whose book is it?    -- It ____ be Bob's sister's. She is only a baby.

A. must            B. mustn't           C. can't          

5. -- Jill looks so painful, there ____ be something wrong with her.

-- Oh, dear! We'd better take her to the hospital at once.

A. can             B. should            C. must

6. --Is Simon coming by train?   -- He should, but he ____ not. He likes driving his car.

A. may            B. need              C. must

7. -- May I try on the jeans?    -- Yes, you ___.

A. should          B. can               C. must          

8. -- Do you know any traffic rules?

-- A little. When the traffic lights are red, we ____ stop and wait.

A. may            B. can               C. must         

9. I think schools ____ allow students at least one hour a day for sports.

A. would           B. should            C. could      

10. -- Can I swim in the lake. Dad?  

-- No, you ____. Haven't you seen the notice “No Swimming”?

A. may not        B. mightn't           C. mustn't   

11. -- Are you going to Beijing by air?

-- It's fast but a little expensive. So I am not sure. I __ take it.

A. will           B. may               C. must   

12. -- Could I borrow your dictionary?   -- Of course you ____.

A. can           B. will                C. should      

13. --Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow.   --No,____.

A. I don't         B. I won't             C. I can't     

14. -- Will you please stay here for the party?

-- Sorry, I ____. I'll have to go to an important meeting.

A. mustn't        B. needn't             C. can't     

15. -- Must I tidy the room now?    

-- No, you ____. You can do it after breakfast.

A. mustn’t        B. need               C. don't have to    

16. -- You must come back every month.    -- Yes, I ____.

A. will           B. must              C. should    

17. -- Is this coat Jane's?   -- It ____ be hers, but I'm not sure.

A. will            B. may             C. must     

18. -- ____ we go and fly kites today?     -- That's a good idea.

A. Should         B. Must            C. Shall     

19. --ls your brother playing computer games, Ted?

-- He ___ do that because the computer doesn't work.

A. may not        B. can't             C. mustn't      

20. -- I don't mind telling you what I have known. 

-- You ___, and I am not asking you for it.

A. needn't         B. mustn't           C. may not      

21. _____ you help me?  

A.Will            B.Shall             C.Must

22. You ______watch TV if you’ve finished your homework.

    A. can           B. must             C. need           

23. I have seen lights in that empty house. Do you think I _____report it to the police?

   A. should         B. may              C. will        

24. -- Who is the girl standing over there?

   -- Well, if you ______know, her name is Mary.

   A. may           B. can               C. must         

25. -- Excuse me, could you tell me where the supermarket is?

   -- It’s two blocks straight ahead. You _____miss it.

   A. mustn’t        B. can’t              C. shouldn’t

26. -- Mom, there goes the bell.

   -- Oh, it _____ Annie. I invited her to come for dinner.

   A. can’t be         B. must be           C. may be

27. I’ll let you see the patient in an hour if you _____wait here.

   A. will           B. must              C. can       

28. Whoever can answer one of my questions ______get a prize.

   A. would         B. should             C. will       

29. Tom, you ______leave all your clothes on the floor like this.

   A. wouldn’t       B. mustn’t            C. needn’t        

30. It’s 7:50. You ____hurry, or you’ll be late.

   A. might         B. will               C. had better     

31. In spring, all the flowers in the garden _______ sweet.

A. taste         B. smell            C. become      

32. She _______ like her mother in character.

A. is            B. seems           C. looks       

33. In late autumn leaves _______ brown.

A. get            B. turn             C. come

34. Look! There _______ so many people here on vacation.

A. have          B. are                 C. be

35. His classmate_______ a singer.

A. were     B. grew       C. has become 

36. My job is ______ you math.

A. to teach       B. teaches        C. taught

37. How time flies! Three years _______ really a short time.

A. are           B. is            C. was       

38. It sounds _______ a good idea.

A. as           B. is           C. like        

39. Her temperature _______ to be all right.

A. seems       B. sounds       C. looks

40. His wish to become a driver has _______ true.

A. turned       B. come       C. been      

41. Little Jim’s speech sounds _______.

A. friendly       B. wonderfully     C. nicely

42. When her mother came home yesterday, it was _______ dark.

A. going           B. running       C. getting     

43. These apples taste _______.  

A. to be good    B. good       C. well    

44. -- How about the cloth you bought yesterday?

   -- That’s very beautiful. It _______ so soft.

A. felt        B. feels       C. is feeling  

45. When his brother telephoned him last night, he _______ asleep.

A. felt       B. fell         C. fall       

46. The food will _______ bad easily in such hot weather.

A. go           B. went       C. turn

47. It _______ that he was late for the train.

A. looks       B. says           C.seems

48. What does your brother look _______?

A. like        B. as         C. after     

49. The girl’s voice is so sweet and her songs _______ very beautiful.

A. taste         B. look        C. sound

50. What a lovely day! I hope it _______ fine.

A. stayed       B. will stay     C. will get    

 

參考答案

1-5BCCCC    6-10ABCBC   11-15BABCC  16-20ABCBA  21-25AAACB

26-30BACBC  31-35BABBC  36-40ABCAB  41-45ACBBB  46-50ACACB

 

 

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